Vesicoureteral Reflux -- Adult
(VUR; Reflux Nephropathy; Chronic Atrophic Pyelonephritis; Vesico-Ureteric Reflux; Ureteral Reflux)
|Anatomy of the Urinary System|
|Copyright © Nucleus Medical Media, Inc.|
- A problem in the way the ureter inserts into the bladder
- A ureter that does not extend far enough into the bladder
- A bladder outlet obstruction (eg, blockage of urine flow from an enlarged prostate gland)
- A neurogenic bladder (loss of normal bladder function due to damaged nerves reaching the bladder)
- Temporary swelling after kidney transplant
- Family history
- Congenital abnormalities of the urinary tract
- Birth defects that affect the spinal cord, such as spina bifida
- Tumors in the spinal cord or pelvis
- Spinal cord injury
- Frequent and urgent need to urinate
- Passing small amounts of urine
- Pain in the abdomen or pelvic area
- Burning sensation during urination
- Cloudy, bad-smelling urine
- Increased need to get up at night to urinate
- Blood in the urine
- Leaking urine
- Low back pain or pain along the side of the ribs
- Fever and chills
- Blood tests
- Urine tests
- CT scan
- Voiding cystourethrogram (VCUG)—a liquid that can be seen on x-rays is placed in the bladder through a catheter; x-rays are taken when the bladder is filled and when urinating.
- Intravenous pyelogram—a liquid that can be seen on x-rays is injected into a vein; x-ray images are taken as the liquid travels from the blood (after being injected into a vein) into the kidneys and bladder
- Nuclear scans—a variety of tests using radioactive materials injected into a vein or the bladder to show how well the urinary system is working
American Urological Association Foundation http://www.urologyhealth.org/
National Kidney Foundation http://www.kidney.org/
Health Canada http://www.hc-sc.gc.ca
The Kidney Foundation of Canada http://www.kidney.ca/
Valla JS, Steyaert H, Griffin SJ, et al. Transvesicoscopic Cohen ureteric reimplantation for vesicoureteral reflux in children: a single-centre 5-year experience. J Pediatr Urol . 2009;5(6):466-471.
Vesicoureteral reflux. EBSCO DynaMed website. Available at: http://www.ebscohost.com/dynamed/what.php . Updated April 26, 2012. Accessed October 18, 2012.
Vesicoureteral reflux. National Kidney and Urological Diseases Information Clearinghouse website. Available at: http://kidney.niddk.nih.gov/kudiseases/pubs/vesicoureteralreflux/ . Updated September 2011. Accessed October 18, 2012.
Wein A, ed. Campbell-Walsh Urology . 9th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Saunders, Elsevier; 2007.
- Reviewer: Adrienne Carmack, MD
- Review Date: 10/2012 -
- Update Date: 10/31/2012 -