(Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia [CIN]; Precancerous Changes of the Cervix)
|Female Reproductive Organs|
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- Multiple sexual partners
- Early onset of sexual activity (before age 18)
- Early childbearing (before age 16)
- Sexually transmitted diseases
- Genital herpes
- Exposure to diethylstilbestrol (DES) in utero (in the womb)—an estrogen-like substance given to prevent miscarriages in high-risk pregnancies
HPV DNA Analysis
Colposcopy and Biopsy
- Severe (carinoma-in-situ)
- Invasive cervical cancer
Loop Electrosurgical Excision Procedure (LEEP)
- Use safe sex methods to prevent HPV infection.
- If you smoke, quit .
- Get vaccinated against HPV infection. The HPV vaccine called Gardasil is approved for use in females aged 9-26 years old. The HPV vaccine called Cervarix is approved for females aged 10-25 years old.
- If you are age 21-29 years, you should have the Pap test every two to three years.
- If you are age 30-65, you should have the Pap test along with the HPV test every three to five years.
- If you are age 65 or older, you may be able to stop having Pap and HPV tests if you have had normal results (such as, three normal results in a row and no abnormal results in the past 10 years).
- Note: You will need to have Pap tests done more often if you have abnormal results. You may also need more frequent testing if you have certain conditions, like a suppressed immune system or a history of cervical dysplasia or cervical cancer. Talk to your doctor about the right screening schedule for you.
American Congress of Obstetricians and Gynecologists http://www.acog.org
American Social Health Association http://www.ashastd.org
The Society of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists of Canada http://www.sogc.org
Women's Health Matters http://www.womenshealthmatters.ca
American Congress of Obstetricians and Gynecologists (ACOG) Committee on Practice Bulletins. ACOG Practice Bulletin no. 109: Cervical cytology screening. Obstet Gynecol . 2009 Dec;114(6):1409-20.
Cervical cancer screening: overview. EBSCO DynaMed website. Available at: https://dynamed.ebscohost.com/about/about-us . Updated August 3, 2012. Accessed October 2, 2012.
Comparison of three management strategies for patients with atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance: baseline results from a randomized trial. J Natl Cancer Inst . 2001;93:293-299.
Hanna E, Bachmann G. HPV vaccination with Gardasil: a breakthrough in women's health. Expert Opin Biol Ther . 2006;6(11):1223-7. Review.
Human papillomavirus. ACOG Practice Bulletin . 2005;61.
McLemore MR. Gardasil: introducing the new human papillomavirus vaccine. Clin J Oncol Nurs . 2006 Oct;10(5):559-60.
New vaccine prevents cervical cancer. FDA Consum . 2006;40(5):37.
3/19/2012 DynaMed's Systematic Literature Surveillance https://dynamed.ebscohost.com/about/about-us : Screening for cervical cancer. US Preventive Services Task Force website. Available at: http://www.uspreventiveservicestaskforce.org/uspstf/uspscerv.htm . Published March 2012. Accessed March 19, 2012. Saslow D, Soloman D, et al. American Cancer Society, American Society for Colposcopy and Cervical Pathology, and American Society for Clinical Pathology screening guidelines for the prevention and early detection of cervical cancer. CA: A Cancer Journal for Clinicians . 2012 Mar 14 early online.
6/17/2014 DynaMed's Systematic Literature Surveillance http://www.ebscohost.com/dynamed: Rahangdale L, Lippmann QK, et al. Topical 5-fluorouracil for treatment of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia 2: a randomized controlled trial. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2014 Apr;210(4):314.e1-8.
- Reviewer: Andrea Chisholm
- Review Date: 12/2013 -
- Update Date: 06/17/2014 -