Polycystic Kidney Disease
(PKD; Autosomal Dominant Polycystic Kidney Disease; ADPKD; Adult Polycystic Disease; Polycystic Kidney Disease Type 2)
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- Blood in the urine
- Abdominal pain
- Frequent urination
- Blood tests
- Urine tests
- High blood pressure medication—Since high blood pressure is common with PKD, medications are often prescribed to control blood pressure.
- Pain medication—Pain medications must be used cautiously, since some of them can cause damage to the kidneys.
- Antibiotics—In the event of a urinary tract infection, treatment with antibiotics is needed to avoid damage to the kidneys.
- Surgery—Cysts may be drained through surgery to relieve pain, blockage, infection, or bleeding. Cyst drainage may also temporarily lower blood pressure. Sometimes, one or both kidneys may be removed if pain is severe. This procedure is called nephrectomy.
- Diet—A low-protein diet may reduce stress on the kidney. Avoiding salt can help keep normal blood pressure. Drinking plenty of water can also help reduce the risk of kidney stones.
- Dialysis and transplantation—More than half of PKD patients develop kidney failure and need dialysis. Dialysis is used to remove wastes from the blood, since the kidneys cannot. At this stage, dialysis will be a lifelong requirement unless a kidney transplant from a donor can be done successfully.
American Academy of Family Physicians http://www.familydoctor.org
PKD Foundation http://www.pkdcure.org
Health Canada http://www.hc-sc.gc.ca
The Kidney Foundation of Canada http://www.kidney.ca
ADPKD vs. ARPDK: What's the difference? PKD Foundation website. Available at: http://www.pkdcure.org/learn. Accessed July 16, 2013.
Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease. EBSCO DynaMed website. Available at: https://dynamed.ebscohost.com/about/about-us. Updated February 11, 2013. Accessed July 16, 2013.
Chang MY, Ong AC. Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease: recent advances in pathogenesis and treatment. Nephron Physiol. 2007;108:1-7.
Childhood polycystic disease. EBSCO DynaMed website. Available at: https://dynamed.ebscohost.com/about/about-us. Updated November 30, 2009. Accessed July 16, 2013.
Polycystic kidney disease (PKD). American Academy of Family Physicians website. Available at: http://familydoctor.org/familydoctor/en/diseases-conditions/polycystic-kidney-disease.html. Updated January 2011. Accessed October 18, 2012.
Renal dysplasia and cystic disease. American Urological Association website. Available at: http://www.urologyhealth.org/urology/index.cfm?article=19. Updated January 2011. Accessed July 16, 2013.
Tierney LM, McPhee SJ, et al. Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease. In: Tierney L, McPhee S, Papadakis M. Current Medical Diagnosis and Treatment. Philadelphia, PA: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; 2005.
- Reviewer: Adrienne Carmack, MD; Michael Woods, MD
- Review Date: 07/2013 -
- Update Date: 05/11/2013 -