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- Flat feet, which transfer too much weight to the MTP joint
- Narrow-toed shoes and high heels
- Certain neuromuscular diseases, such as cerebral palsy or multiple sclerosis
- Marfan syndrome
- Activities that put undue stress on the feet, such as ballet
- Family members who have foot abnormalities
- Sex: female
- Tip of the big toe that turns in toward the other toes and may overlap the second or third toe
- Firm bump on the outside edge of the foot or at the base of the big toe
- Restricted or painful motion of the big toe
- Foot pain and stiffness
- Fluid-filled cyst between the skin and the bony lump
Padding and Taping
- Anti-inflammatory drugs
- Cortisone injections
- Removal of the bony lump
- A more involved procedure to cut the bone and realign the joint
- Wear wide toed shoes and comfortable footwear that does not pinch the toes.
- Avoid activities that cause foot pain, like standing too long.
- Prevent a minor bunion from worsening with bunion pads and proper shoes.
American Orthopaedic Foot and Ankle Society http://www.aofas.org
American Podiatric Medical Association http://www.apma.org
Ontario Podiatric Medical Association http://www.opma.ca
Complete Home Medical Guide . American College of Physicians; 1999.
Ferrari J. Higgins JP. Prior TD. Interventions for treating hallux valgus (abductovalgus) and bunions. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews . 2004;CD000964.
Foot care. National Institute on Aging website. Available at: http://www.nia.nih.gov/health/publication/foot-care . Updated April 18, 2012. Accessed April 4, 2013.
Maffulli N, Longo UG, Marinozzi A, Denaro V. Hallux valgus: effectiveness and safety of minimally invasive surgery. A systematic review. Br Med Bull . 2011;97:149-167.
Wexler D, Kile TA. Frontera: Essentials of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation . Philadelphia, PA; Hanley and Belfus; 2002.