- Brain tissue that may not develop correctly during pregnancy—growing fetus may experience a lack of oxygen or nutrients
- Child sustains a head injury or brain infection
- Mother and child's blood types are not compatible
- Mother has rubella while pregnant
- Stroke or bleeding occurs in the baby's brain during development or after birth
- Child does not get enough oxygen during or after birth
- There are abnormalities of the umbilical cord or placenta, or the placenta separates too early from the wall of the uterus
- Child has meningitis , encephalitis , seizures, or head injury
- Child has genetic/metabolic abnormalities
- Infection or blood clotting problems during pregnancy
- Vaginal bleeding during pregnancy
- Seizures or intellectual disability in the expectant mother
- Complicated or premature delivery
- Cord prolapse
- Breech birth
- Low Apgar score—a rating of the child's condition just after birth
- Low birth weight
- High birth weight
- Type 1 diabetes in the expectant mother
- Premature birth
- Multiple births, such as twins or triplets
- Small head
- In vitro fertilization (IVF) —in part due to multiple births associated with IVF
- Late to turn over, sit up, smile, or walk
- Trouble writing, buttoning a button, or other fine motor activities
- Difficulty walking or standing
- Tight, spastic muscles
- Weak muscles
- Poor balance
- Speech problems
- Unintentional body movements
- Difficulty swallowing
- Intellectual disability
- Learning disabilities
- Vision or hearing problems
- Decreased ability to feel pain or identify items by touch
- Problems with bowel and bladder control
- Breathing problems if food or water has accidentally entered the lungs
- Skin breakdown
- Low bone density and fractures
- You may have your brain's electrical activity tested. This can be done with an Electroencephalogram (EEG) .
- You may have pictures taken of structures inside your head. This can be done with:
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- Glycopyrrolate—to decrease drooling
- Pamidronate—to treat osteoporosis
Medicines that may be used to treat spasticity:
- Botulinum toxin
- Before getting pregnant, receive a vaccination for rubella.
- Seek out early prenatal care.
- Receive testing for blood-type problems. Get treatment if tests reveal incompatible blood types.
- Do not smoke , drink alcohol , or use drugs while pregnant.
- Put the baby in a child safety seat when in the car.
- Insist that the child wear a helmet when riding a bicycle.
- Seek help if you have, or want to, hurt the child.
- Keep poisons away from your child.
- Closely supervise bathing.
- Get your child immunized at the recommended time.
- If your baby becomes sick, call the doctor right away.
The Cerebral Palsy Association of BC http://www.bccerebralpalsy.ca
Ontario Federation for Cerebral Palsy http://www.ofcp.ca
Ashwal S, Russman BS, Blasco PA, et al. Practice parameter: diagnostic assessment of the child with cerebral palsy: report of the Quality Standards Subcommittee of the American Academy of Neurology and the Practice Committee of the Child Neurology Society. Neurology . 2004;62(6):851-863.
Cerebral palsy. EBSCO DynaMed website. Available at: https://dynamed.ebscohost.com/about/about-us . Updated December 14, 2012. Accessed February 1, 2013.
Cerebral palsy (CP). Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Center on Birth Defects and Developmental Disabilities website. Available at: http://www.cdc.gov/ncbddd/cp/index.html . Updated September 7, 2012. Accessed February 1, 2013.
Cerebral palsy: hope through research. National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke website. Available at: http://www.ninds.nih.gov/disorders/cerebral%5Fpalsy/detail%5Fcerebral%5Fpalsy.htm . Updated August 23, 2012. Accessed February 1, 2013.
Hazneci B, Tan AK, Guncikan MN, Dincer K, Kalyon TA. Comparison of the efficacies of botulinum toxin A and Johnstone pressure splints against hip adductor spasticity among patients with cerebral palsy: a randomized trial. Mil Med . 2006;171(7):653-656.
Johnson SL, Blair E, Stanley FJ. Obstetric malpractice litigation and cerebral palsy in term infants. J Forensic Leg Med . 2011;18(3):97-100.
Nolan KW, Cole LL, Liptak GS. Use of botulinum toxin type A in children with cerebral palsy. Phys Ther . 2006;86(4):573-584.
Park ES, Park CI, Chang HC, Park CW, Lee DS. The effect of botulinum toxin type A injection into the gastrocnemius muscle on sit-to-stand transfer in children with spastic diplegic cerebral palsy. Clin Rehabil . 2006;20(8):668-674.
Steinbok P. Selection of treatment modalities in children with spastic cerebral palsy. Neurosurg Focus . 2006;21(2):e4.
10/30/2009 DynaMed's Systematic Literature Surveillance https://dynamed.ebscohost.com/about/about-us : Mergler S, Evenhuis HM, Boot AM, et al. Epidemiology of low bone mineral density and fractures in children with severe cerebral palsy: a systematic review. Dev Med Child Neurol . 2009;51(10):773-778.
2/4/2010 DynaMed's Systematic Literature Surveillance DynaMed's Systematic Literature Surveillance : Delgado MR, Hirtz D, Aisen M, et al. Practice parameter: pharmacologic treatment of spasticity in children and adolescents with cerebral palsy (an evidence-based review): report of the Quality Standards Subcommittee of the American Academy of Neurology and the Practice Committee of the Child Neurology Society. Neurology . 2010;74:336-343.
7/30/2010 DynaMed's Systematic Literature Surveillance DynaMed's Systematic Literature Surveillance : United States Food and Drug Administration. FDA approves drug for chronic drooling in children. United States Food and Drug Administration website. Available at: http://www.fda.gov/NewsEvents/Newsroom/PressAnnouncements/ucm220444.htm . Published July 28, 2010. Accessed July 30, 2010.
- Reviewer: Kari Kassir, MD
- Review Date: 09/2013 -
- Update Date: 09/30/2013 -