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Throat Cancer

(Cancer, Throat; Cancer, Oropharyngeal; Oropharyngeal Cancer; Nasopharyngeal Cancer; Cancer, Nasopharyngeal)

Definition

Throat cancer is a disease in which cancer cells grow in an abnormal way in the throat.
Throat Cancer
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Causes

Cancer occurs when cells in the body divide without control or order. Eventually these uncontrolled cells form a growth or tumor. The term cancer refers to malignant growths. These growths can invade nearby tissues including the lymph nodes. Cancer that has invaded the lymph nodes can then spread to other parts of the body.
It is not clear exactly what causes these problems in the cells, but is probably a combination of genetics and environment.

Risk Factors

Throat cancer is more common in men, and in people aged 40 years and older. Other factors that may increase your chance of throat cancer include:

Symptoms

Throat cancer may cause:

Diagnosis

The doctor will ask about your symptoms and medical history. A physical exam will be done. The doctor may feel for any lumps in your neck. You may be referred to an otolaryngologist, a doctor who specializes in head and neck surgery.
Tests may include:
Imaging tests to evaluate your throat and surrounding structures may include:
The physical exam, combined with all of your test results, will help to determine the type and stage of cancer you have. Staging is used to guide your treatment plan. Like other cancers, throat cancer is staged from I-IV. Stage I is a very localized cancer, while stage IV indicates a spread to other parts of the body.

Treatment

Cancer treatment varies depending on the stage and type of cancer. A combination of therapies may be more effective. For example, surgery may be used in conjunction with chemo- or radiation therapy.
Treatment options for throat cancer include:

Surgery

Surgery removes the cancerous tumor and nearby tissue, and possibly nearby lymph nodes. In very rare cases, surgery to remove large tumors of the throat may also require removal of tissue for swallowing. As a result, food may enter the windpipe and reach the lungs, which might cause aspiration pneumonia. In this case, your doctor may do a tracheotomy. The windpipe will be attached to the skin through a hole in the neck, which is used for breathing.

Radiation Therapy

This is the use of radiation to kill cancer cells and shrink tumors. Radiation may be:
  • External radiation therapy—radiation directed at the tumor from a source outside the body
  • Internal radiation therapy—radioactive materials placed into the throat in or near the cancer cells

Chemotherapy

This is the use of drugs to kill cancer cells. Chemotherapy may be given in many forms including pill, injection, and/or via a catheter. The drugs enter the bloodstream and travel through the body killing mostly cancer cells, but also some healthy cells.

Prevention

To help reduce your chance of throat cancer:

RESOURCES

American Cancer Society http://www.cancer.org

CancerCare http://www.cancercare.org

CANADIAN RESOURCES

BC Cancer Agency http://www.bccancer.bc.ca

Canadian Cancer Society http://www.cancer.ca

References

Forastiere AA. Head and neck cancer: overview of recent developments and future directions. Semin Oncol. 2000 Aug;27(4 Suppl 8):1-4.

Forastiere AA, Trotti A. Radiotherapy and concurrent chemotherapy: a strategy that improves locoregional control and survival in oropharyngeal cancer. J Natl Cancer Inst. 1999 91(24):2065-2066.

General information about oropharyngeal cancer. National Cancer Institute website. Available at: http://www.cancer.gov/cancertopics/pdq/treatment/oropharyngeal/patient. Updated July 3, 2014. Accessed September 30, 2014.

Oral cavity and oropharyngeal cancers. American Cancer Society website. Available at: http://www.cancer.org/acs/groups/cid/documents/webcontent/003128-pdf.pdf. Accessed September 30, 2014.

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